Friday, May 31, 2013

Monica Ali and the Brick Lane


Monica Ali (born 20 October 1967) is a Bangladeshi-born British writer and novelist. In 2003 she was selected as one of the "Best of Young British Novelists" by Granta magazine based on her unpublished manuscript; her debut novel, Brick Lane, was published later that year. It was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize. It was adapted as a 2007 film of the same name. She has published three additional novels.

Ali was born in Dhaka, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1967 to a Bangladeshi father and English mother. When she was three, her family moved to Bolton, England. Her father is originally from the district of Mymensingh. She went to Bolton School and then studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Wadham College, Oxford.

Brick Lane:
Brick Lane - named after Brick Lane, a street at the heart of London’s Bangladeshi community - follows the life of Nazneen, a Bangladeshi woman who moves to London at the age of 18, to marry an older man, Chanu. They live in Tower Hamlets. At first her English consists only of “sorry" and “thank you;” the novel explores her life and adaptations in the community, as well as the character of Chanu, and their larger ethnic community. The novel provoked controversy within the Bangladeshi community in Britain. Some groups thought Ali had negatively portrayed people from the Sylhet region, as they constitute the majority of the Bangladeshi immigrants living in the Brick Lane community.



The Observer described Chanu as “one of the novel’s foremost miracles: twice her age, with a face like a frog, a tendency to quote Hume and the boundless doomed optimism of the self-improvement junkie, he is both exasperating and, to the reader at least, enormously loveable.” Geraldine Bedell wrote in The Observer that the “most vivid image of the marriage is of her [Nazneen] cutting her husband’s corns, a task she seems required to perform with dreadful regularity. [Her husband] is pompous and kindly, full of plans, none of which ever come to fruition, and then of resentment at Ignorant Types who don’t promote him or understand his quotations from Shakespeare or his Open University race, ethnicity and class module.” The novel was well-received by critics in the United Kingdom and the United States, and shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize.

Film adaptation:
In 2007, the book was adapted as a film of the same name. Starring the Indian actress Tannishtha Chatterjee, the film was distributed both in the UK and internationally. When production was underway in 2006, some of the Bangladeshi community opposed Ruby Films' intention to film parts of the novel in the Brick Lane area. They formed the "Campaign Against Monica Ali’s Film Brick Lane.”



The writer and activist Germaine Greer expressed support for the campaign, writing in The Guardian: “As British people know little and care less about the Bangladeshi people in their midst, their first appearance as characters in an English novel had the force of a defining caricature ... [S]ome of the Sylhetis of Brick Lane did not recognize themselves. Bengali Muslims smart under an Islamic prejudice that they are irreligious and disorderly, the impure among the pure, and here was a proto-Bengali writer with a Muslim name, portraying them as all of that and more.”

Books of Monica Ali:
  • Brick Lane (2003), Doubleday
  • Alentejo Blue (2006), Doubleday
  • In The Kitchen (2009), Doubleday
  • Untold Story (2011), Scribner

Thanks a lot for reading, source of the writings: Wikipedia.

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Rushanara Ali - MP for Bethnal Green and Bow
Forward your Business / Product to the Next Step - YOUNIVERSITY Ventures

AkramKhanCompany.net - Place to Learn Dance
New Facebook Apps - Home


Monday, May 27, 2013

AkramKhanCompany.net - Place to Learn Dance


Akram Hossain Khan, MBE (born 29 July 1974) is an English dancer of Bangladeshi descent. His background is rooted in his classical kathak training and contemporary dance. Khan was born in Wimbledon, London, England into a family from Dhaka, Bangladesh. He began dancing and trained in the classical Indian dance form of Kathak at the age of seven. He studied with Sri Pratap Pawar, later becoming his disciple. He began his stage career at the age of 13, when he was cast in Peter Brook’s Shakespeare Company production of Mahabharata, touring the world between 1987 and 1989 and appearing in the televised version of the play broadcast in 1988.

Following later studies in Contemporary Dance at De Montfort University and Performing Arts at the Northern School of Contemporary Dance and a period working with Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker’s Brussels based X-Group project, he began presenting solo performances of his work in the 1990s. In August 2000, he launched Akram Khan Company. His first full-length work Kaash, a collaboration with Anish Kapoor and Nitin Sawhney, was performed at the Edinburgh Festival in 2002.

As choreographer-in-residence and later associate artist at the Southbank Centre,[4] he presented a recital with Pandit Birju Maharaj and Sri Pratap Pawar; and A God of Small Tales, a piece for mature women for which he collaborated with writer Hanif Kureishi. He remained an associate artist at the Southbank Centre until April 2005, the first non-musician to be afforded this status, and is currently an associate artist at Sadler's Wells Theatre.

In 2008, he co-starred with Juliette Binoche in a dance-drama piece called in-i at the Royal National Theatre, London. In summer 2006, Khan was invited by Kylie Minogue to choreograph a section of her Showgirl concert. Khan appeared as a huge projection behind the singer as she performed. The songs were set in an Indian temple scenario, inspired by a trip Minogue made to Sri Lanka.[7] He has made pieces for the Ballet Boyz and Cloud Gate Dance Theatre of Taiwan. Khan and his dance company performed at the 2012 London Olympics opening ceremony. Live music was provided by Emile Sande singing 'Abide With Me.

Akram Khan Dance Company journeys across boundaries to create uncompromising artistic narratives. Akram Khan Company produces thoughtful, provocative and ambitious dance productions for the international stage. Akram Khan takes human themes and works with others to take them to new and unexpected places - embracing and working with other cultures and disciplines.

The dance language in each production is rooted in Akram Khan's classical Kathak and modern dance training, and continually evolves to communicate ideas that are intelligent, courageous and new, bringing with it international acclaim and recognition as well as artistic and commercial success.

A brief description about the Akram Khan Company:
Founded in August 2000 by the Choreographer Akram Khan and Producer Farooq Chaudhry, Akram Khan Company journeys across boundaries to create uncompromising artistic narratives. Having established itself as one of the foremost innovative dance companies in the world, the company is renowned for its intercultural, interdisciplinary collaborations and for challenging conventional ideas of traditional dance forms. The dance language in each production is rooted in Akram Khan’s classical Kathak and modern dance training, and continually evolves to communicate ideas that are intelligent, courageous and new.

Akram Khan Company tours extensively both within the United Kingdom and internationally at leading international festival and venues, performing a diverse range of programmes including classical kathak solos, ensemble productions and artist-to-artist collaborations.

Vision and Mission of the Company:
  • Akram Khan Dance Company journeys across boundaries to create uncompromising artistic narratives.
  • Akram Khan Company produces thoughtful, provocative and ambitious dance productions for the international stage.
  • Akram Khan takes human themes and works with others to take them to new and unexpected places – embracing and collaborating with other cultures and disciplines.
  • The dance language in each production is rooted in Akram Khan’s classical Kathak and modern dance training and his fascination with storytelling. The work continually evolves to communicate ideas that are intelligent, courageous and new, bringing with it international acclaim and recognition as well as artistic and commercial success.

Awards achieved:
  • 2013: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award 2012 for Best Male Dancer (Akram Khan)
  • 2012: TMA Theatre Awards UK 2012 for Achievement in Dance (Akram Khan for DESH)
  • 2012: Olivier Awards 2012 for Best New Dance Production (DESH)
  • 2012: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award 2011 for Best Modern Choreography (Vertical Road)
  • 2011: Distinguished Artist Award, International Society for the Performing Arts (ISPA), New York (Akram Khan)
  • 2011: South Bank Sky Arts Award in Dance, UK (Gnosis)
  • 2010: Danza & Danza Award for Best Performance in 2010, Bolzano, Italy  (Vertical Road)
  • 2010: The Age Critics Award for Best New Work, Melbourne Arts Festival (Vertical Road)
  • 2010: Honorary Fellowship from Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance in recognition of outstanding efforts and unique contributions to the arts (Akram Khan)
  • 2010: Honorary Doctorate of Letters, Roehampton University (Akram Khan)
  • 2007: Helpmann Award for Best Choreography, Sydney Arts Festival (zero degrees)
  • 2007: Helpmann Award for Best Male Dancer, Sydney Arts Festival (zero degrees)
  • 2007: Excellence in International Dance Award by International Theatre Institute (Akram Khan)
  • 2005: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award for Outstanding Male or Female Artist (modern) (Akram Khan)
  • 2005: South Bank Show Award (ma)
  • 2005: MBE for services to dance (Akram Khan)
  • 2004: Honorary Doctorate of Arts for his contribution to the UK arts community, De Montfort University (Akram Khan)
  • 2004: The International Movimetos Tanzpreis for Most Promising Newcomer in Dance (Akram Khan)
  • 2002: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award for Best Modern Choreography (Kaash)
  • 2000: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award for Outstanding Newcomer to Dance (Rush)
  • 2000: Time Out Live Award for Outstanding Newcomer to Dance (Akram Khan in Rush)
  • 2000: Jerwood Foundation Choreography Award (Loose in Flight)

Nominations achieved:
  • 2012: 13th Critics' Circle National Dance Awards for Best Modern Choreography (DESH)
  • 2012: 13th Critics' Circle National Dance Awards - Dancing Times Awards for Best Male Dancer (Akram Khan)
  • 2012: 33rd Annual Dora Mavor Moore Awards for Outstanding Dance Production (Confluence)
  • 2012: British Inspiration Awards Arts Category (Akram Khan)
  • 2012: South Bank Sky Arts Awards 2012 Dance Category (DESH)
  • 2012: London Dance Award 2012 (Akram Khan)
  • 2011: Les Globes de Cristal Art et Culture Awards: “Opera or Dance Performance” (In-I)
  • 2010: 11th Critics' Circle National Dance Awards for Outstanding Female Performance (Modern) - dancers Eulalia Ayguade Farro (Vertical Road, bahok) & Yoshie Sunahata (Gnosis)
  • 2010: Olivier Award for Outstanding Contribution to Dance - Yoshie Sunahata  (Gnosis)
  • 2010: Manchester Evening News Theatre Dance Award (bahok)
  • 2006: Time Out Award (zero degrees)
  • 2006: Olivier Award for Best New Dance Production (zero degrees)
  • 2005: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award for Company Prize for Best Choreography (Modern) (zero degrees)
  • 2005: The Critics' Circle National Dance Award for Company Prize for Outstanding Repertoire (Modern) (Akram Khan Company)
  • 2002: Best Dance Show by French Magazine Le Inrockuptibles (Kaash)
  • 2002: Nijinsky Award for Best New Comer, Monaco Dances Forum (Akram Khan)
  • 2001: South Bank Show Award (Rush)

The web portal provides lot’s of information’s about dancing and other related topics, please visit the web portal Akram Khan Company for further details.

Thanks a lot.

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Rushanara Ali - MP for Bethnal Green and Bow

Monica Ali and the Brick Lane
Forward your Business / Product to the Next Step - YOUNIVERSITY Ventures
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Thursday, May 23, 2013

Rushanara Ali - MP for Bethnal Green and Bow


Rushanara Ali is a British Labour Party politician and Associate Director of the Young Foundation, who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bethnal Green and Bow since 2010. She is currently part of the shadow team for the Department for International Development along with Tony Cunningham and led by Ivan Lewis.

Rushanara Ali was born in Bangladesh on 14 March 1975. With her family, Ali immigrated to the East End of London at the age of seven, where she attended Mulberry School for Girls and Tower Hamlets College. Growing up in Tower Hamlets, her father was a manual worker. The first in her family to go to university, Ali studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at St John's College, Oxford.

Readers,
This is a review post about the web portal of RushnaraAli, the below written has taken from the web portal: www.rushanaraali.org. Please for further details, you are requested to visit the portal.

Rushanara Ali was elected as the Member of Parliament for Bethnal Green and Bow at the UK General Election in May 2010. She moved to the UK with her family from Bangladesh when she was 7 years old. Her achievements are the achievements of teachers and youth workers at Mulberry School and Tower Hamlets College. It was their support and belief in her which led her to a place at Oxford University and jobs in Parliament, the Institute for Public Policy and Research, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Home Office and now as the MP for Bethnal Green and Bow.



Biography of Rushanara Ali:
Rushanara Ali is the Labour Member of Parliament for Bethnal Green and Bow. She was elected in May 2010 with a majority of 11,574, having defeated George Galloway’s Respect Party.

In October 2010, Rushanara was appointed to the Labor front bench as Shadow Minister for International Development. As part of this role she is the Labour spokesperson on International Development matters for Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, climate change, conflict and stabilisation as well as gender equality.

Prior to her election in May 2010, she was Associate Director of the Young Foundation. She previously worked at the Communities Directorate of the Home Office, leading a work programme in response to the 2001 disturbances in the North of England (2002-2005).

Rushanara has worked on human rights issues at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2000-2001); as a Research Fellow at the Institute for Public Policy Research (1999-2002) and as Parliamentary Assistant for Oona King, former MP for Bethnal Green & Bow (1997-1999).

She has also worked as the Research Assistant to Lord Young of Dartington (author of the 1945 Labour Party manifesto), helping him to set up Futureversity (formerly known as Tower Hamlets Summer University) and Language Line, a national telephone interpreting company.

Little about the Bethnal Green and Bow:
The heart of London’s East End, Bethnal Green and Bow is a wonderfully diverse community, with a rich and deep history and proud political heritage. The East End has inspired many men and women to make history and fight for social justice. Some of the greatest social reforms of the past 100 years- the trade union movement, Suffragettes and the welfare state have come from ideas inspired by the East End and it's people.

Bethnal Green and Bow is known for its vibrancy, its cultural activity, its places and its people. Whitechapel gallery, Columbia Road flower market, and Spitalfields market are just some of the places that attract thousands of locals and visitors from around the world.

Iconic places Brick Lane tell an extraordinary history of Britain. Brick Lane was the first place many waves of migrants called home, from the Huguenots, Jews, Irish, Pakistanis, Bengalis, to the Somalis to name just a few. The richness of contributions made by so many generations is manifested poignantly in the Brick Lane Jamme Masjid. Originally built by the Huguenots for Christian worshippers, it later became a synagogue and is now a mosque.

The spirit of people from the East End is steeped in courage and determination as well as sacrifice and loss. The worst civilian loss of life in Britain during the Second World War was the Bethnal Green tube disaster. On the 3rd March 1943, 173 people lost their lives in the Bethnal Green and Bow tube station whilst seeking shelter from air raids during the blitz bombings. 

Thanks a lot, for further details please visit the website http://www.rushanaraali.org/.

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Forward your Business / Product to the Next Step - YOUNIVERSITY Ventures
AkramKhanCompany.net - Place to Learn Dance
Monica Ali and the Brick Lane
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Monday, May 20, 2013

About the History of Mobile Phones - from 1973

The Cell Phone / Mobile phone has become a crucial tool in our everyday life. We depend on it for nearly everything electronic, and we often have trouble knowing what to do without it. 

The history of cell / mobile phones charts the development of devices which connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network. The transmission of speech by radio has a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links. Hand-held radio transceivers have been available since the 1940s. Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the 1940s. Early devices were bulky and consumed high power and the network supported only a few simultaneous conversations. Modern cellular networks allow automatic and pervasive use of mobile phones for voice and data communications.

In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on June 17, 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri. Shortly after, AT&T offered Mobile Telephone Service. A wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services offered limited coverage area and only a few available channels in urban areas. The introduction of cellular technology, which allowed re-use of frequencies many times in small adjacent areas covered by relatively low powered transmitters, made widespread adoption of mobile telephones economically feasible.


In the USSR, Leonid Kupriyanovich, engineer from Moscow, in 1957-1961 developed and presented a number of experimental models of handheld mobile phone. The weight of a latest model, presented in 1961, was only 70 g and it freely took place on a palm. However in the USSR the decision at first to develop the system of automobile "Altai" phone was made.

The advances in mobile telephony can be traced in successive generations from the early "0G" services like MTS and its successor Improved Mobile Telephone Service, to first generation (1G) analog cellular network, second generation (2G) digital cellular networks, third generation (3G) broadband data services to the current state of the art, fourth generation (4G) native-IP networks.

Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone. On April 3, 1973 Martin Cooper, a Motorola engineer and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment in front of reporters, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. The prototype handheld phone used by Dr. Martin Cooper weighed 2.5 pounds and measured 9 inches long, 5 inches deep and 1.75 inches wide. The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge.


John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products and Martin Cooper's boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.


Below are some images represents the history of Cell / Mobile Phones from 1973 – 2013:


1973:
The first public wireless phone call was made in 3rd April, 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola. Walking along in sixth avenue, New York he called Joel Engel (head of research, Bell Labs). The phone he used had the following features:
Weight: 2.5 pound
Length: 10 inches
Battery life: 20 minutes only.


1982:
Mobile  phone opportunities opened up when the Federal Communications Commission approved the establishment of Mobile Telephone System and allocated analog frequencies use by the network.

1983: MOTOROLA Dynatac 8000X
The first Cellphone was sold to the public and really kicked things off. The MOTOROLA DYNATAC 8000X (nickname "The Brick") included the following features:
Twenty (20) large buttons
A long rubber antenna
Battery life: 30 minutes
Recharge time: 10 hours

1989: MTOROLA Microtac:
It was the first flip cell phone from Motorola. Over the years, we've seen the exponential increase in the cell phone's abilities, as its price continues to go down. Several attempts at fads didn't quite catch on. Yet, with each new device, the cell phone's evolution became faster and more sleek.


1993: IBM Personal Communicator:
This is the first Cell phone to have Smartphone capabilities.

1998: NOKIA 5110:
This handset was best remembered for the Game Snake and Colorful Snap-on covers. Talk time increased up to 3 hours.

2004: MOTOROLA RAZR V3:
Best remembered for ultra-thin design, talk time increases up to 7 hours.

2007: APPLE iPhone:
Best remembered for being a Game changer.

2013:
Lots of Smart-Phone from various manufacturers around the world, like Blackberry, Sony, LG, Apple, Samsung, Nokia, Symphony etc..


source:

Thanks a lot for reading this post.

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A little about the History of Computer
History of Laptop Computers - after 70s
Smartphones History - after 70s
Top 20 Smart Mobile Phones in the World
Ten Fastest SuperComputers in the World
Little about our own Solar System
NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Earth-Like-Planet
Largest Earth-Based Telescopes in the World
Solar Electric Scooter - Future Technology
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Little about the Hubble Space Telescope
Little about the LHC - Large Hadron Collider
Little about the Google Self Driving Car


Friday, May 17, 2013

Forward your Product or Business to the Next Step - YOUNIVERSITY Ventures

The Youniversity Ventures helps all talented teams with innovative products to take fast forward to the next step. The team working in YOUNIVERSITY VENTURES provides mentorship, expertise, contacts, and access to capital. No more details about the company has been found on the web portals but it has formed by some successful entrepreneurs and angels the co-founder of the popular video sharing website YouTube, Jawed Karim. Meet the team below:

Kevin Hartz:
Kevin is the co-founder of Eventbrite, a popular event registration service. Previously, Kevin was co-founder and CEO of Xoom Corporation, an international money transfer company providing service in over 30 countries. Kevin also co-founded ConnectGroup, a start-up providing high-speed Internet access to the hotel industry. ConnectGroup was acquired by Lodgenet in 1998. Kevin holds a BA and BS from Stanford University and an MA from Oxford University. He has been an early-stage investor and advisor to startups such as PayPal, Geni.com, Friendster, Flixster.com, and Trulia. Kevin is also a Sequoia Technology Partner at Sequoia Capital. You can see his full list of affiliations at www.kevinhartz.com.

Jawed Karim:
Jawed Karim was born in Merseburg, East Germany, in 1979 and moved to West Germany in 1980. His father, Naimul Karim, is a Bangladeshi American researcher at 3M. His mother, Christine Karim, is a German scientist and research associate professor of biochemistry at the University of Minnesota. Jawed co-founded the YouTube to enable individuals worldwide to broadcast themselves. Prior to YouTube, he was one of the first engineers at PayPal. Jawed received a BS in computer science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and an MS in computer science from Stanford University. He is a Sequoia Technology Partner at Sequoia Capital.

Keith Rabois:
Keith is Chief Operating Officer at Square, the innovative new payments company founded by Jack Dorsey that empowers anyone to accept payments everywhere. Keith specializes in transforming early-stage startups into successful businesses and has deep expertise in the financial services industry and government affairs. An accomplished executive, entrepreneur and angel investor, Keith has held leadership roles at PayPal, LinkedIn, Slide and began his career practicing law at the prestigious Sullivan & Cromwell. Keith was an early investor in several high-profile Internet companies including YouTube and currently serves on the board of directors of Yelp, Xoom, and Milo. Keith holds a JD from Harvard Law School and an undergraduate degree in political science from Stanford University. He is also a Sequoia Technology Partner at Sequoia Capital.

For more details you can visit their web portal: YOUNIVERSITY VENTURES.

Thanks a lot for reading.

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Khan Academy - An International Digital Classroom
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Rushanara Ali - MP for Bethnal Green and Bow
AkramKhanCompany.net - Place to Learn Dance
Monica Ali and the Brick Lane
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Tuesday, May 14, 2013

NASA's Mars Mission with Rover Curiosity

With its rover named Curiosity, Mars Science Laboratory mission is a part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration on the red planet of our Solar System. Curiosity was designed to assess whether Mars ever had an environment able to support small life forms called microbes. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's "habitability."

Mars Science Laboratory will study Mars' habitability:
To find out, the rover carries the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the martian surface. The rover will analyze samples scooped from the soil and drilled from rocks. The record of the planet's climate and geology is essentially "written in the rocks and soil" - in their formation, structure, and chemical composition. The rover's on-board laboratory will study rocks, soils, and the local geologic setting in order to detect chemical building blocks of life (e.g., forms of carbon) on Mars and will assess what the martian environment was like in the past.

Mars Science Laboratory relies on innovative technologies:
Mars Science Laboratory will rely on new technological innovations, especially for landing. The spacecraft descended on a parachute and then, during the final seconds prior to landing, lowered the upright rover on a tether to the surface, much like a sky crane. Now on the surface, the rover will be able to roll over obstacles up to 75 centimeters (29 inches) high and travel up to 90 meters (295 feet) per hour. On average, the rover is expected to travel about 30 meters (98 feet) per hour, based on power levels, slippage, steepness of the terrain, visibility, and other variables.

The rover carries a radioisotope power system that generates electricity from the heat of plutonium's radioactive decay. This power source gives the mission an operating lifespan on Mars' surface of a full martian year (687 Earth days) or more, while also providing significantly greater mobility and operational flexibility, enhanced science payload capability, and exploration of a much larger range of latitudes and altitudes than was possible on previous missions to Mars.

Arriving at Mars at 10:32 p.m. PDT on Aug. 5, 2012 (1:32 a.m. EDT on Aug. 6, 2012), Mars Science Laboratory will serve as an entree to the next decade of Mars exploration. It represents a huge step in Mars surface science and exploration capability because it will:
  • Demonstrate the ability to land a very large, heavy rover to the surface of Mars (which could be used for a future Mars Sample Return mission that would collect rocks and soils and send them back to Earth for laboratory analysis)
  • Demonstrate the ability to land more precisely in a 20-kilometer (12.4-mile) landing circle
  • Demonstrate long-range mobility on the surface of the red planet (5-20 kilometers or about 3 to 12 miles) for the collection of more diverse samples and studies.
Below are some images about the mission, mountain and rocks on mars, rover curiosity's own pictures, drilling pictures on the ground etc.

The Mars Rover Curiosity on the Earth:

Goldstone Antenna is ready on Earth to communicate with Rover Curiosity:

Preparing for take of at the Launch Pad:

Landing on Mars (artists impression):

Images of Rocks, Mountain, Soil etc on Mars:

Thanks a lot for viewing this post.
source: Mars Science Laboratory - NASA

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NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Earth-Like-Planet

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Space Stations in the Earth Orbit
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James Webb Space Telescope
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Sunday, May 12, 2013

A little about the History of Computer's

The history of stored-program computers relates first to computer architecture, that is, the organization of the units to perform input and output, to store data and to operate as an integrated mechanism. Before the development of the general-purpose computer, most calculations were done by humans. Mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations were then called "calculating machines"; by proprietary names, or even as they are now, calculators. It was those humans who used the machines who were then called computers.

In the United States of America, the development of the computer was underpinned by massive government investment in the technology for military applications during the World War-II and then the Cold War. The latter superpower confrontation made it possible for local manufacturers to transform their machines into commercially viable products. It was the same story in Europe, where adoption of computers began largely through proactive steps taken by national governments to stimulate development and deployment of the technology.

The invention of electronic amplifiers made calculating machines much faster than their mechanical or electro-mechanical predecessors. Vacuum tube (thermionic valve) amplifiers gave way to solid state transistors, and then rapidly to integrated circuits which continue to improve, placing millions of electrical switches (typically transistors) on a single elaborately manufactured piece of semi-conductor the size of a fingernail. By defeating the tyranny of numbers, integrated circuits made high-speed and low-cost digital computers a widespread commodity.

There is an ongoing effort to make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and capable of storing more data. Computing hardware has become a platform for uses other than mere computation, such as process automation, electronic communications, equipment control, entertainment, education, etc. Each field in turn has imposed its own requirements on the hardware, which has evolved in response to those requirements, such as the role of the touch screen to create a more intuitive and natural user interface. As all computers rely on digital storage, and tend to be limited by the size and speed of memory, the history of computer data storage is tied to the development of computers.

Earliest Hardware used:
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years in the history, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with our fingers. The abacus was early used for arithmetic tasks. What we now call the Roman abacus was used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Several analog computers were constructed in ancient and medieval times to perform astronomical calculations. These include the Antikythera mechanism and the astrolabe from ancient Greece (150–100 BC), which is generally regarded as the earliest known mechanical analog computers.

Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) made many complex mechanical devices including automata and a programmable cart. Other early versions of mechanical devices used to perform one or another type of calculations include the planisphere and other mechanical computing devices invented by Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni (AD 1000); the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Al-Zarqali (AD 1015); the astronomical analog computers of other medieval Muslim astronomers and engineers; and the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (AD 1090) during the Song Dynasty.
Wilhelm Schickard, a German polymath, designed a calculating clock in 1623. A fire destroyed the machine during its construction in 1624 and Schickard abandoned the project. In 1642, while still a teenager, Blaise Pascal started some pioneering work on calculating machines and after three years of effort and 50 prototypes he invented the mechanical calculator. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the Stepped Reckoner and his famous cylinders around 1672 while adding direct multiplication and division to the Pascaline. Around 1820, Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar created the first successful, mass-produced mechanical calculator, the Thomas Arithmometer that could add, subtract, multiply, and divide.
In Japan, Ryoichi Yazu patented a mechanical calculator called the Yazu Arithmometer in 1903. It consisted of a single cylinder and 22 gears, and employed the mixed base-2 and base-5 number system familiar to users to the Japanese abacus Soroban. Carry and end of calculation were determined automatically. However, up to the 1940s, many subsequent designs (including Charles Babbage's machines of the 1822 and even ENIAC of 1945) were based on the decimal system; ENIAC's ring counters emulated the operation of the digit wheels of a mechanical adding machine.

Desktop Calculator:
By the 1920s Lewis Fry Richardson's interest in weather prediction led him to propose human computers and numerical analysis to model the weather; to this day, the most powerful computers on Earth are needed to adequately model its weather using the Navier–Stokes equations. Companies like Friden, Marchant Calculator and Monroe made desktop mechanical calculators from the 1930s that could add, subtract, multiply and divide.
In 1948, the Curta was introduced. This was a small, portable, mechanical calculator that was about the size of a pepper grinder. Over time, during the 1950s and 1960s a variety of different brands of mechanical calculators appeared on the market. The first all-electronic desktop calculator was the British ANITA Mk.VII, which used a Nixie tube display and 177 sub-miniature thyratron tubes. In 1965, Wang Laboratories produced the LOCI-2, a 10-digit transistorized desktop calculator that used a Nixie tube display and could compute logarithms.

Advanced analog computers:
Before World War II, mechanical and electrical analog computers were considered the "state of the art", and many thought they were the future of computing. Analog computers take advantage of the strong similarities between the mathematics of small-scale properties, the position and motion of wheels or the voltage and current of electronic components, and the mathematics of other physical phenomena, for example, ballistic trajectories, inertia, resonance, energy transfer, momentum, and so forth. An ingenious example of such a machine, analog computers, using water as the analog quantity, was the water integrator built in 1928; an electrical example is the Mallock machine built in 1941.

Some of the most widely deployed analog computers included devices for aiming weapons, such as the Norden bombsight, and fire-control systems, such as Arthur Pollen's Argo system for naval vessels. Some stayed in use for decades after World War II; the Mark I Fire Control Computer was deployed by the United States Navy on a variety of ships from destroyers to battleships. Other analog computers included the Heathkit EC-1, and the hydraulic MONIAC Computer which modeled econometric flows. The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith with the differential analyzer, built by H. L. Hazen and Vannevar Bush at MIT starting in 1927. Digital electronic computers like the ENIAC spelled the end for most analog computing machines, but hybrid analog computers, controlled by digital electronics, remained in substantial use into the 1950s and 1960s, and later in some specialized applications.

ENIAC, 1946:
Regarded as the first general purpose electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was initially commissioned for the use in World War II, but not completed until one year after the war had ended . Installed at the University of Pennsylvania, its 40 separate eight-foot-high racks and 18,000 tubes were intended to help calculate ballistic trajectories.

SAGE, 1954:
A gigantic computerized air defense systems, SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) were designed to help the Air Force track radar data in real time. Equipped with technical advances such as modems and graphical displays, the machine weighed 300 tons and occupied one floor of a concrete blockhouse.

NEAC 2203, 1960:
Manufactured by the Nippon Electric Company (NEC), the drum-based machine was one of the earliest transistorized Japanese computers. It was used for business, scientific and engineering applications.

IBM System/360, 1964:
Part of a family of interchangeable computers, the IBM System/360 mainframe was the first to cover a complete range of applications, from small to large, from commercial to scientific. Users were able to enlarge or shrink their setup without having to make headache-inducing software upgrades as well. Higher-end System/360 models had roles in NASA's Apollo missions as well as air traffic control systems.

CDC 6600, 1964:
For a time the fastest machine in the world, Control Data Corporation's 6600 machine was designed by noted computer architect Seymour Cray. It retained its speed crown until 1969, when Cray designed his next supercomputer.

DEC PDP-8, 1965:
The first successful commercial minicomputer, the PDP-8, made by the Digital Equipment Corporation, sold more than 50,000 units upon its release, the most of any computer up to that time. Years before Apple and Gnu / Linux offered alternatives to the dominant IBM / Microsoft paradigms, DEC proposed its own vision, by encouraging users to educate themselves and take part in the evolution of the line.

Interface Message Processor, 1969:
Conceived at the height of the Cold War, when the U.S. government sought a way to keep its network of computers alive in case certain nodes were destroyed in a nuclear attack or other hostile act, the IMP featured the first generation of gateways, which are today known as routers. As such, IMP performed a critical task in the development of the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the contemporary global Internet.

Kenbak-1, 1971:
Often considered the world's first "personal computer" the Kenbak was touted as an easy-to-use educational tool, but it failed to sell more than several dozen units. Lacking a microprocessor, it had only 256 bytes of computing power and its only output was a series of blinking lights.

Cray-1, 1976:
At the time of its release, the Cray-1, above, was the fastest computing machine at the world. Despite its price tag, between $5 and $10 million, it sold well. It is one of the many machines designed by Seymour Cray, a computer architect who devoted his life to the creation of so-called supercomputers, machines which prioritized processing capacity and speed of calculation.

Apple-I, 1976:
Initially conceived by Steve Wozniak (a.k.a. "Woz") as a build-it-yourself kit computer, Apple-I was initially rejected by his bosses at Hewlett-Packard. Undeterred, he offered it to Silicon Valley's Homebrew Computer Club and, together with his friend Steve Jobs, managed to sell 50 pre-built models to The Byte Shop in Mountain View, California. The suggested retail price: $666. Though sales were low, the machine paved the way for the smash success of the Apple-II.

IBM Personal Computer, 1981:
Featuring an independent keyboard, printer and monitor, the slick, complete-looking package that was the IBM PC helped push personal computing out of the hobbyist's garage and into the corporate and consumer mainstream. Its immense commercial success made it the hallmark of personal computing for many years and led other manufacturers to produce similar desktop models.

Osborne 1 Portable Computer, 1981:
The first commercial portable computer, the Osborne weighed 24 lbs. and cost less than $2,000. It gained popularity because of its low price and the extensive software library that came with it.

Hewlett-Packard 150, 1983:
Representing the first step in a technology widely available today, the HP 150 was the first commercially available computer with touch screen technology. The 9-inch computer screen was surrounded by infrared transmitters and receivers that detected the position of the user's finger.

Deep Blue, 1997:
Begun at IBM in the late 80's, the Deep Blue project was an attempt at using parallel processing to solve a difficult problem- namely, beating the best chess player in the world, Garry Kasparov. During a six-game match, which Kasparov ultimately lost, the confounded master attributed one move to "the hand of God."

iPhone, 2007:
The handy little device introduced by Apple CEO Steve Jobs in 2007 not only brings together internet access, a regular cell phone, camera and media player, it supports a wide variety of third party applications, or apps, that supply everything from recipes to maps of the night sky, and wraps it all in a sleek, glossy exterior.

iPad, 2010:
And now the tablet is finally here. It's called an iPad, and it's half an inch thick, weighs 1.5 pounds and features a 9.7 inch display. As Steve Jobs says in the presentation above, the device has a 10-hour battery life, so you'll be able to use all the 3rd-party apps, games, video and online newspapers you want. The Wi-Fi iPad begins at $499 while the 3G version begins at $629.

Thanks a lot for reading this.
Sources of images and descriptions: wikipedia and time photos.

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